At the time Muzeum Śląskie was reinstated, the Archeology Department’s collection was non-existent. The historical artefacts of Muzeum Śląskie’s pre-war Prehistory Department that survived the war and the difficult post-war years remained part of the Archeology Department of Muzeum Górnośląskie in Bytom. Initially, the exhibits of the Archeology Department came from its excavation projects. Then, the Department came to provide archeological supervision at infrastructure development projects. It would conduct archeological research projects prior to the launch of regional motorway development projects. Additionally, Muzeum Śląskie has received exhibits pursuant to administrative decisions by the Regional Heritage Conservator of Katowice and has participated in projects run by national and international institutions, specifically archeological research projects at sites related to the Pre-dynastic Period and Early Dynastic Period in Tell el-Farcha and Tell el-Murra, Egypt.
For many years now, the Archeology Department has also been committed to investigating the status and changes in the environment from the perspective of human settlements in Upper Silesia and other regions nationwide. As a result of related projects, the Bio-archeology Section was set up under the Archeology Department. The former is concerned with specialized archeo-botanical and archeo-zoological examination of field material and samples. Consequently, the Museum is able to develop database-like collections of comparative material that is then used for research.
The Archeology Department collects historical items discovered in the region of Silesia and the former region of Katowice. The collection of this Department includes material from excavation projects conducted by employees of the Department at sites representing epochs ranging from the Neolithic to the middle ages, including in Bojanów, Kamieniec, Krzanowice, Orzech, Pietraszyn, Pietrowice Wielkie, Rogoźnik, Samborowice, Siemonia, Wojkowice-Żychcice (Będzin-Żychcice), and chronologically diverse material provided by the Regional Heritage Conservator, including from Hutki, Katowice, Krzykawka, Mikołów, Olkusz, Przeczyce, Pszczyna, Racibórz-Stara Wieś, Ruda Śląska-Kochłowice, Rybnik, Ryczów, and Witeradów. The exhibits also include items found during construction of the A1 motorway in Stanowice Podlesie, Świerklany Górne and Świerklany Dolne.
Since 2013, the Archeology Department has researched Płaskowyż Głubczycki for the presence of Celts in Upper Silesia in collaboration with the Institute of Archaeology of the University of Wrocław, as part of the Celt Project. During the excavation works, supported with geomagnetic and surface methods, we discovered pockets of Celtic settlements (3rd/2nd century BC) in the area of today’s Samborowice. The remains of the huts provided ample artefacts, mostly wheel-thrown ceramics and objects used for weaving. A nugget and an amber bead were found in one of the huts. Along with a piece of a glass bracelet originating from Alpine areas found in the same site, these objects attest to the contacts between Celts, inhabiting southern parts of what is now Upper Silesia, and northern and southern Europe. These finds lead us to believe that the Celtic settlement in Samborowice was part of the Amber Trail.
Most of the artefacts found in the course of archeological projects conducted by the staff of the Archeology Department have been further analysed and developed.